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Water quality

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Hydrogeological and environmental monitoring and diagnoses: quality, state, pollution, composition of water

Since the creation of the CETRAHE R & D unit in 2009, its equipment in ion chromatography originally intended to detect and measure saline tracers (chlorides, iodides, lithium, etc.) has given rise, because of the absence of any other analytical platform of the same type on the Orléans Grand Campus, to requests for expertise and research collaborations in many areas requiring analysis of the composition, quality or pollution of water (major ions, nutrients...): soil remediation (Jassam and al. 2014), impairment diagnoses of built heritage (Javier-Badossa et al. 2015), composition and impact of urban wet weather discharges (Al-Juhaishi et al. 2016), hydrogeochemical studies of the functioning of artificial lakes (e.g. Défarge et al. 2013, Défarge & Jozja 2015), evolution of peatlands and karstic systems as a result of global changes and anthropogenic activities (e.g. Leroy et al. 2019). As such, CETRAHE supports the OSUC (Universe Science Observatory in Center region) in two Services Nationaux d’Observation (SNO: National Observatories) of the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers du CNRS (National Institute of Earth Sciences of the French National Scientific Research Organisation): " TOURBIERES "(Peat Observatory "Functioning of temperate peatlands and impact of global changes "), particularly for the Guette peat bog in Sologne, and " KARST " ("National karst hydrosystems observation network "; Jourde et al. 2018), for the observation site of Val d'Orléans.

Its dual expertise in hydrogeochemical analyses and tracing (as well as in local hydrogeology) also makes CETRAHE a natural partner of BRGM (French Geological Survey) in the understanding, evaluation and prevention of karst related risk (sinkholes) in Val d'Orléans : tracing of underground conduits, understanding of carbonate dissolution processes (Perrin et al. 2016, 2017).

Another more recent and developing research focus, that arose from the existence of the CETRAHE analytical platform, is the characterization by spectrofluorimetry (equipment originally acquired to detect and quantify artificial fluorescent tracers) of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in water (Fellman et al. 2010, Coble et al. 2014), sediments and soils: some natural humic and proteinic compounds, as well as pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, BTEX, certain drug residues or pesticides are fluorescent substances that can be detected or even quantified (e. g. Ferretto et al. 2014). The characterization of FDOM or the fluorescence intensity ratios between the various compounds (Coble et al. 2014) can be used to develop indicators of the evolution of hydrosystems and associated ecosystems (e. g. Gogo et al. 2016, Bernard-Jannin et al. 2018). Soil fluorescent pollutant studies are also conducted at CETRAHE in analytical support for PhD research (Johansson et al. 2021), or in the context of engineering projects, in collaboration with engineering firms (e.g. Contejean & Damians 2016, Blanc 2017, Kabore & Xie 2017, Madouche & Schivo 2018, see Directed Reports).

The local nature of the regional hydrosystems studied (all located less than a day's drive from the University of Orléans) allows CETRAHE in all cases to ensure an excellent quality of the measurement chain, particularly in terms of conservation time of the species, which is usually the most difficult aspect to respect. The choice of sampling volume, flasks, type or absence of conservative treatment (in addition to the systematic cold and dark storage of samples between their sampling and their analysis in the laboratory) is made according to the study objectives, based on the cross-referencing of the recommendations of standards and reference work in the field of water analysis (in particular: Standard NF EN ISO 14911: 1999, Thierrin et al. 2003, Standard NF EN ISO 10304-1: 2009, Rodier et al. 2009, EPA Victoria 2009, Ceaeq 2012, 2017, NF EN ISO 5667-3 standard: 2018).  


Ceaeq (Centre d’expertise en analyse environnementale du Québec) 2012. Modes de conservation pour l’échantillonnage des eaux de surface. Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, DR-09-10, Québec (Canada), 7 p.

Ceaeq (Centre d’expertise en analyse environnementale du Québec) 2017. Modes de conservation pour l’échantillonnage des eaux souterraines. Ministère du Développement Durable, de l’Environnement, de la Faune et des Parcs, DR-09-09, Québec (Canada), 5 p.

Coble P.G. Lead J. Baker A. Reynolds D.M. Spencer R.G.M. (eds.) 2014. Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence. Cambridge University Press, New York, 375 p.

EPA (Environment Protection Authority) Victoria 2009. Sampling and analysis of waters, wastewaters, soils and wastes. Industrial Waste Resource Guidelines, Publication IWRG701, 36 p. 

Fellman J.B. Hood E. Spencer R.G.M. 2010. Fluorescence spectroscopy opens new windows into dissolved organic matter dynamics in freshwater ecosystems: A review. Limnology and Oceanography, v. 55, p. 2452–2462.

Ferretto N. Tedetti M. Guigue C. Mounier S. Redon R. Goutx M. 2014. Identification and quantification of known polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in complex mixtures using fluorescence excitation–emission matrices and parallel factor analysis. Chemosphere, v. 107, p. 344-353.

Johansson C. Bataillard P. Biache C. Lorgeoux C. Colombano S. Joubert A. Défarge C. Faure P. 2021. Permanganate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and polar PACs): column experiments with DNAPL at residual saturation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research,

Norme NF EN ISO 14911 : 1999. Qualité de l’eau – Dosage par chromatographie ionique des ions Li+, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+ et Ba2+ dissous – Méthode applicable pour l'eau et les eaux résiduaires. AFNOR, Paris, 20 p.

Norme NF EN ISO 10304-1 : 2009. Qualité de l’eau – Dosage des anions dissous par chromatographie des ions en phase liquide – Partie 1 : Dosage du bromure, chlorure, fluorure, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate et sulfate. AFNOR, Paris, 16 p.

Norme NF EN ISO 5667-3 : 2018. Qualité de l'eau — Échantillonnage — Partie 3 : Conservation et manipulation des échantillons d'eau. AFNOR, Paris, 46 p.

Rodier J. Legube B. Merlet N. et al. 2009. L'analyse de l'eau, 9ème édition. Dunod, Paris, 152 p.

Thierrin J. et al. 2003. Guide pratique. Echantillonnage des eaux souterraines. OFEFP (Office Fédéral de l’Environnement, des Forêts et du Paysage), Berne, 82 p.

[For other references (CETRAHE publications), see Articles, ouvrages. See also presentations, posters and abstracts on these topics in Communications.]